Prof. Dr. Regine Claßen-Bockhoff



in Process

Claßen-Bockhoff R. Die Pflanze. Evolution und Entwicklung morphologscher Vielfalt. Springer (expected at the beginning of 2022)


Will M, Porter JM, Celep F, Lara-Cabrera SI, Steinmann V, Claßen-Bockhoff R. To split or not to split – what to do with Salvia? Taxon (submitted)


Naghiloo S, Bellstedt D, Claßen-Bockhoff R. Pollination biology in Roepera (Zygophyllaceae): How flower structure and shape influence foraging activity. Plant Species Biology.


Ajani Y, Claßen-Bockhoff. The unique inflorescence structure of Dorema aucheri (Apiaceae): an adaptation to the arid environment. Journal of Arid Environments.184 (2021) 104194. ► Inflorescences

Chinga J, Pérez F, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2021. The role of heterochrony in Schizanthus flower evolution- a quantitative analysis. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 49 (2021) 125591 ► Flower

Claßen-Bockhoff, R, Franke D, Krähmer H. 2021. Early ontogeny defines the diversification of vascular bundle systems in angiosperms. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195: 281–307. ► Verschiedenes

Claßen-Bockhoff R, Ronse De Craene LP, Becker A. 2021. Editorial: From meristems to floral diversity: developmental options and constraints. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9:637954.doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.637954 ► Flower

Krähmer H, Hesse L., Krüger F, Speck T, Claßen-Bockhoff R 2021. Vascular bundle modifications in nodes and internodes of selected African Marantaceae species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195: 308–326. ► Marantaceae


Cairampoma L, Tello JA, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2020. Pollination in the desert – adaptation to bees and birds in Salvia rhombifolia. International Journal Plant Sciences 181:857–870. ► Salvia

Celep F, Atalay Z, Dikmen F, Doğan M, Sytsma KJ, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2020. Pollination ecology, specialization, and genetic isolation in sympatric bee pollinated Salvia (Lamiaceae). International Journal Plant Sciences 181:800–811. ► Salvia

Claßen-Bockoff R, Frankenhäuser H. 2020. The `male flower´ of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) interpreted as a multi-flowered unit. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 8:313.doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.00313. ► Inflorescences

Naghiloo S, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2020 A combination of dichogamy and herkogamy mediates reproductive success in the desert shrub Zygophyllum fabago. Journal of Arid Environment 182 (2020) 104279. ► Flower

Wester P, Cairampoma L, Haag S, Schramme J, Neumeyer C, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2020. Bee exclusion in bird-pollinated Salvia flowers – the role of flower colour versus flower construction. International Journal Plant Sciences 181:770–786. ► Salvia


Chinga J, Bull-Hereñu K, Claβen-Bockhoff R, Perez F. Integration and allometric changes during development underlying floral diversification in Schizanthus (Solanaceae). Annals of Botany (accepted)

Ajani Y, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2019. Reproductive ecology in Seseli ghafoorianum (Apiaceae) restricted to rocky cliffs in Iran. Turkish Journal Botany 43: 343-357

Ochoterena H, Vrijdaghs A, Smets E, Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2019. The search for common origin: homology revisited. Syst. Biol. doi/10.1093/sysbio/syz013/5364027

Zhang B, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2019. Sex-differential reproduction success and selection on floral traits in gynodioecious Salvia pratensis. BMC Plant Biology (2019) 19: 375.


Jerominek M, Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2018. Insights into the inside - a quantitative histological study of the explosive moving style in Marantaceae. Front. Plant Sci.

Naghiloo S, Bellstedt D, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2018. The plasticity of breeding system in arid-adapted Zygophylloideae. Journal of Arid Environments 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.11.008

Ajani Y, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2018. Ethnobotanical Interviews on Dorema aucheri Boiss. (Apiaceae), a medicinal species in southern Iran. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources 12. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2018.12.555827.

Claßen-Bockhoff R, Arndt M. 2018. Flower-like heads from flower-like meristems: pseudnathium development in Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae). Journal of Plant Research. 131: 443-458.

Naghiloo S, Bellstedt D, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2018. Nectar protection in arid-adapted flowers of Zygophyllaceae-Zygophylloideae. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 34: 37-50


Claßen-Bockhoff R., 2017. Stefan Vogel (1925-2015). Reflections on his work and life. Arthropod-Plant Interactions.Arthropod-Plant Interactions 11: 249-255

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Stamen construction, development and evolution in Salvia s.l. Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils 4: 28-48

Naghiloo S, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Understanding the uinique flowering sequence in Dipsacum fullonum: Evidence from geometrical changes during head development. PLoS ONE 12 (3): e0174091.

Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) – molecular data demand taxonomic consequences. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 109: 33-58.


Ajani Y, Bull-Hereñu K, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Patterns of flower development in Apiaceae-Apioideae. Flora 221: 38-45.

Bull-Hereñu K, Claßen-Bockhoff R, Ronse De Craene L. 2016. The FLO-RE-S network for contemporary studies in flower structure and biology. Flora 221: 1-3.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. The shoot concept of the flower: still up to date? Flora 221: 46-53.

Claßen-Bockhoff R, Meyer C. 2016. Space matters - meristem expansion triggers corona formation in Passiflora. Annals of Botany 117: 277-290.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Bruniaceae. In Kubitzky K (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Pants. Vol. 14: Flowering Plants: Eudicots: 103-115.

Dworaczek E, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. `False resupination´ in the flower-pairs of Thalia L. (Marantaceae). Flora 221: 65-74.

Naghiloo S, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Developmental analysis of merosity and sexual morphs in Rubiaceae: A case study in Rubia and Cruciata. Flora 222: 52-59

Naghiloo S, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Gradual inhibition of staminate structures results in various degrees of male sterility in Knautia arvensis. Int. J. Plant Sci. 177: 608-617.

Ott D, Hühn P, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Salvia apiana – A carpenter bee flower? Flora 221: 82-91.

Stöbbe J, Schramme J, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Trainig experiments with Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera on artificial `Salvia´flowers. Flora 221: 92-99.

Owens A, Cieslak M, Claßen-Bockhoff R., Prusinkiewicz P. 2016. Modeling dense inflorescenc es. ACM Trans. Graph. 35,4, Article 136.


Cairampoma L, Martel C, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Proposal to conserve the name Salvia cruikshanksii with that spelling (Lamiaceae).Taxon 64: 850-851.

Jerominek M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Electrical Signals in Prayer Plants (Marantaceae)? Insights into the Trigger Mechanism of the Explosive Style Movement. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0126411.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126411

Naghiloo S, Fathollahi MR, Classen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Flower ontogeny in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) with special emphasis on symmetry expression. Nord J Bot. 33: 754-760.

Will M, Schmalz N, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Towards a new classification of Salvia s.l.: (re)establishing the genus Pleudia Raf. Turk J Bot 39: 693-707.


Celep F., Atalay, Z., Dikmen, F., Dogan, M., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Fly pollination in bee-pollinated Salvia species (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia. American Journal of Botany.

Jerominek M, Bull-Hereñu K, Arndt M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2014. Live imaging of developmental processes in a living meristem of Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae). Front. Plant Sci. 5, 613, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00613

Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2014. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceaea) in Africa. Annals of Botany 114: 61-83.


Bogacheva-Milkoteva K, Kazuharova E, Claßen-Bockhoff R., Gogala, A. 2013. Pollination ecology of Haberlea rhdodpensis Friv. (Gesneriaceae), a tertiary relict endemic to the Balkan peninsula. Comp. Rend. De l’Acadé mie nulgare des Scuiences 66: 14271436.

Bogacheva-Milkoteva K, Kazuharova E, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2013. Breeding systems of Haberlea rhodopensis (Gesneriaceae), a tertiary relict endemic to the Balkan Peninsula. Phytologia Balcanica 19: 201-288.

Bull-Hereñu K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2013 Testing the ontogenetic base for the transient model of inflorescence development. Annals of Botany 112: 1543-1551

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Ruonali R, Bull-Hereñu K, Marchant N, Albert AV (2013) The unique pseudanthium of Actinodium (Myrtaceae) - morphological reinvestigation and possible regulation by CYCLOIDEA-like genes. EvoDevo 2013 4:8.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Bull-Hereñu K. 2013. Towards an ontogenetic understanding of inflorescence diversity. Annals of Botany 112: 1523-1542

Kirchoff B, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2013. Inflorescences: concepts, function, development and evolution. Annals of Botany 112: 1471-1476

Ley A, Claßen-Bockhoff R. Breeding system and fruit set in African Marantaceae. Flora 208: 532-537

Reuther K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2013 Andromonoecy and developmenatl plasticity in Chaerophyllum bulbosum (Apiaceae-Apioideae). Annals of Botany 112: 1495-1503

Schardt L, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2013. Blütenökologische Untersuchungen an Euphorbia palustris und Euphorbia helioscopia. Mainzer Naturwiss. Archiv 50: 211-232.


Ley A.,Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2012: Five new species of African Marantaceae from Gabon. Adansonia, sér. 3, 34: 37-52

Ley A., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2012. Floral synorganization and its influence on mechanical isolation and autogamy in Marantaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 168: 300-322


Bull-Hereñu K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Open and closed inflorescences: more than simple opposites. Journ. Exp. Bot. 62: 79-88

Bull-Hereñu K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Ontogenetic course and spatial constraints in the appearance and disappearance of the terminal flower in inflorescences. Int. Journ. Plant Sci. 172: 471-498

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Oliver EGH, Hall AV., Quint M. 2011: New classification of the Bruniaceae based on molecular and morphological data. Taxon 60:1138-1155

Ley A., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Evolution in African Marantaceae - Evidence from phylogenetic, ecological and morphological studies. Syst. Bot. 36:277-290

Ley A., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Ontogenetic and phylogenetic diversification in Marantaceae - a review. In Wanntorp, L., Ronse de Craene, L. (eds.) Flowers on the Tree of Life: 236-255. Cambridge University Press.

Warren B., Bakker FT., Bellstedt DU., Bytebier B., Claßen-Bockhoff R. , Dreyer LL., Edwards D., Forest F., Galley C., Hardy CR., Linder HP., Muasya AM., Mummenhoff K., Oberlander KC., Quint M., Richardson JE., Savolainen V., Schrire BD., van der Niet T., Verboom GA., Yesson C., Hawkins JA. 2011: Consistent phonological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot: the Cape flora. BMC Evolutionary Biology.

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Pollination syndromes of New World Salvia species with special reference to bird pollination. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 101-155.

Zhang B., Claßen-Bockhoff R. , Zhang Z.-Q., Sun S., Luo Y.-J., Li Q.-J. 2011: Functional implications of lever-like stamens and floral complexity for pollination and female reproduction success in Salvia cyclostegia (Labiaceae). Annals of Botany 107: 621-628


Bull-Hereñu K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010: Developmental conditions for terminal flower production in apioid umbellets. Pant Div. Evol. 128: 221-232

Ley A., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010: Parallel evolution in plant pollinator interaction in African Marantaceae. In van der Burgh, X., van der Maesen, J., Onana, J.M. (eds.), Systematics and Conservation of African Plants: 847-854. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Oliver EGH., Hall AV., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010. Two new species of Bruniaceae from Western Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 40: 96-101

Pischtschan E., Ley A., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010: Ontogenetic and phylogenetic diversification of the hooded staminode in Marantaceae. Taxon 59: 1111-1125

Pischtschan E., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010: Anatomic insights into the thigmonastic style tissue in Marantaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 286: 91-102

Reuther K., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2010: Diversity behind uniformity - Inflorescence architecture and flowering sequence in Apiaceae-Apioideae. Pant Div. Evol. 128: 181-220


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2009: Pollination biology in Lamiaceae – new insights from Salvia L. In Do Nascimento Moura, C.W., Dos Santoas Silva, T.R., Giuilietti-Harley, A. M., Silva, A. M., Ribeiro dos Santos, F. Botânica Brasileira: Futuro e Compromissos. State University of Bahia (UNEB), Salvador

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2009: Anpassung - Isolation - Artbildung: Evolution beim Salbei. NATUR & GEIST 25: 68-71

Ley A.,Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2009: Pollination syndromes in African Marantaceae. Annals of Botany 104: 41-56


Claßen-Bockhoff R. Heller, A. 2008: Floral synorganisation and secondary pollen presentation in four Marantaceae from Costa Rica. Int. J. Plant Sci. 169: 745-760.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Heller A. 2008: Style release experiments in four species of Marantaceae from the Golfo Dulce area, Costa Rica. Stapfia 88: 557-571

Pischtschan E., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2008: Setting-up tension in the style of Marantaceae. Plant Biol. 10: 441-450.

Quint M., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2008: Ancient or recent? New insights on the age of the Bruniaceae and the evolution of the Cape Flora. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 8: 293-304.


Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2007: Floral construction and pollination biology in the Lamiaceae. Annals of Botany 100: 359-360

Reith M., Baumann G., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T. 2007: New insights in the functional morphology of the lever mechanism of Salvia pratensis. Annals of Botany 100: 393-400

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2007: Floral diversity and pollen transfer in bird-pollinated Salvia species. Annals of Botany 100: 401-421

Westerkamp C., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2007: Bilabiate flowers - the ultimate response to bees? Annals of Botany 100: 361-374


Quint M., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Floral ontogeny, petal diversity and nectary uniformity in Bruniaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150: 459-477.

Reith M., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T. 2006: Biomechanics of Salvia flowers, the role of lever and flower-tube in specialization on pollinators. In Herrel, A., Speck, T., Rowe, N.P. (eds.) Ecology and Biomechanics. A mechanical approach to the ecology of animals and plants:123-145. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Bird pollination in South African Salvia species. Flora 201: 396-406

Quint M., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Phylogeny of Bruniaceae based on matK and ITS sequence data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 135-146.

Wester P., Jaarsveld E. van, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Bird pollination in South African Sages. Veld & Flora 92: 196-197


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2005: Aspekte, Typifikationsverfahren und Aussagen der Pflanzenmorphologie. In Harlan, V. (ed.) Wert und Grenzen des Typus in der botanischen Morphologie: 31-52. Nümbrecht: Galunder

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2005: Hummingbird pollination in Salvia haenkei Benth. (Lamiaceae) lacking the „typical“ lever mechanism. Plant Syst. Evol. 257: 133-146.


Claßen-Bockhoff R., Crone M., Baikova E. 2004: Stamen development in Salvia L.: homology reinvestigated. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 475-498.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T., Tweraser E., Wester P., Thimm S., Reith M. 2004: The staminal lever mechanism in Salvia L. (Lamiaceae): a key innovation for adaptive radiation? Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 4: 189-205.


Claßen-Bockhoff R., Wester P., Tweraser E. 2003: The staminal lever arm mechanism in Salvia - a review. Plant Biol. 5: 33-41.

Speck T., Rowe N., Civeyrel L, Claßen-Bockhoff R., Neinhuis C., Spatz H.-C. 2003: The potential of plant biomechanics in functional biology and systematics. In Stuessy TF, Hörandl EB., Mayer V. (eds.): Deep Morphology: Toward a renaissance of morpholpgy in plant systematics: 241-271. Koeltz, Koenigstein.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2001: Plant morphology: the historic concepts of Wilhelm Troll, Walter Zimmermann and Agnes Arber. Annals of Botany 88: 1153-1172.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2001: Vom Umgang mit der Vielfalt - eine kurze Geschichte der Pflanzenmorphologie. Wulfenia 8: 125-144.

Eberwein R., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Leute G.H. 2001: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Albrecht Froebe zum 70. Geburtstag. Wulfenia 8: 1-4.


Claßen-Bockhoff R.2000: Inflorescences in Bruniaceae. Opera Bot. Belg. 12: 5-310.

Claßen-Bockhoff R.Speck T. 2000: Diversity and evolution in Salvia - Presentation of a new research project. Vitex 1: 3-4.

Speck T. Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2000: Biomechanik und Funktionsmorphologie der Staubblätter von insektenblütigen und vogelblütigen Salvia-Arten. Biona-Report 14: 153-157.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Pischtschan E. 2000: The explosive style in Marantaceae - preliminary results from anatomic studies. In Spatz HC. & Speck T. (eds.): Plant Biomechanics 2000: 515-521. Stuttgart: Thieme.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1996: Functional units beyond the level of the capitulum and cypsela in Compositae. In Caligari PDS. & Hind DJN. (eds.). Compositae: Biology & Utilization. Proc. Intern. Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 2: 129-160. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1996: A survey of flower-like inflorescences in the Rubiaceae. Opera Bot. Belg. 7: 329-367.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1995: Wuchsverhalten und Infloreszenzstruktur in der Gattung Nebelia (Bruniaceae). Feddes Repert. 106: 415-437.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1994: Verzweigungsverhalten und Infloreszenzstruktur der Bruniaceen: systematische, morphologische und phylogenetische Schlußfolgerungen. Habilitationsschrift, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.

Froebe HA., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1994: Das trialektische Typuskonzept der botanischen Morphologie. In Gutmann WF, Mollenhauer D & Peters S (eds.): Morphologie & Evolution: 143-167. Senckenberg-Buch 70. Kramer: Frankfurt a.M.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1992: Florale Differenzierung in komplex organisierten Asteraceenköpfen. Flora 186: 1-22.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1992: (Prä-)Disposition, Variation und Bewährung am Beispiel der Infloreszenzblumenbildung. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 89, Ergänzungsband 1: 37-72.


Claßen-Bockhoff R., Armstrong JA., Ohligschläger M. 1991: The inflorescences of the Australian genera Diplolaena R. Br. and Chorilaena Endl. (Rutaceae). Austral. Journ. Bot. 39: 31-42.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1991: Untersuchungen zur Konstruktion des Bestäubungsapparates von Thalia geniculata L. (Marantaceae). Bot. Acta 104: 183-193.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1991: Anthodien, Pseudanthien, Infloreszenzblumen. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 66: 221-240.


Claßen-Bockhoff R. 1990: Pattern analysis is in pseudanthia. Plant Syst. Evol. 171: 57-88.


Claßen-Bockhoff R., Froebe HA., Langerbeins D. 1989: Die Infloreszenzstruktur von Gundelia tournefortii L. (Asteraceae). Flora 182: 463-479.

Magin N., Claßen R. , Gack C. 1989: The morphology of false anthers in Craterostigma plantaginea and Torenia polygonoides (Scrophulariaceae). Can. Journ. Bot. 67: 1931-1937.


Claßen R. 1988: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Gattung Lasiopetalum SM. (Sterculiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109: 501-527.


Claßen R. 1987: Morphological adaptations for bird pollination in Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan (Zingiberaceae). Gard. Bull. Sing. 40: 37-43.

Froebe HA., Claßen R. 1987: Kritische Evaluation zur Deutung der Spreublattkomplexe von Carlina L. Flora 179: 445-452.


Claßen R . 1986: Organisation und Funktion der blumenbildenden Hochblatthüllen bei Symphoremoideae (Verbenaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 60: 383-402.

Dettner K., Hübner M., Claßen R. 1986: Age, structure, phenology and prey of some rheophilous Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Ent. Basiliensis 11: 343-370.


Claßen R. 1984: Untersuchungen zur Struktur und Phylogenie von Pseudanthien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Analogie zu zoophilen Einzelblüten. Dissertation, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.


Claßen R., Dettner K. 1983: Pygidial defensive titer and population structure of Agabus bipustulatus L. and A. paludosus F. (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Journ. Chem. Ecol. 9: 201-209.