Salvia (Lamiaceae)


Cairampoma L, Martel C, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Proposal to conserve the name Salvia cruikshanksii with that spelling (Lamiaceae).Taxon 64: 850-851.

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2009: Anpassung - Isolation - Artbildung: Evolution beim Salbei. NATUR & GEIST 25: 68-71

Claßen-Bockhoff R.Speck T. 2000: Diversity and evolution in Salvia - Presentation of a new research project. Vitex 1: 3-4

Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2007: Floral construction and pollination biology in the Lamiaceae. Annals of Botany 100: 359-360

Westerkamp C., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2007: Bilabiate flowers - the ultimate response to bees? Annals of Botany 100: 361-374

Zhang B, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2019. Sex-differential reproduction success and selection on floral traits in gynodioecious Salvia pratensis. BMC Plant Biology (2019) 19: 375.

Staminal lever mechanism

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Stamen construction, development and evolution in Salvia s.l. Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils 4: 28-48

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Crone M., Baikova E. 2004: Stamen development in Salvia L.: homology reinvestigated. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 475-498.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T., Tweraser E., Wester P., Thimm S., Reith M. 2004: The staminal lever mechanism in Salvia L. (Lamiaceae): a key innovation for adaptive radiation? Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 4: 189-205.

Claßen-Bockhoff R., Wester P., Tweraser E. 2003: The staminal lever arm mechanism in Salvia - a review. Plant Biol. 5: 33-41.

Reith M., Baumann G., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T. 2007: New insights in the functional morphology of the lever mechanism of Salvia pratensis. Annals of Botany 100: 393-400

Reith M., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Speck T. 2006: Biomechanics of Salvia flowers, the role of lever and flower-tube in specialization on pollinators. In Herrel, A., Speck, T., Rowe, N.P. (eds.) Ecology and Biomechanics. A mechanical approach to the ecology of animals and plants:123-145. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis

Speck T. Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2000: Biomechanik und Funktionsmorphologie der Staubblätter von insektenblütigen und vogelblütigen Salvia-Arten. Biona-Report 14: 153-157.

Speck T., Rowe N., Civeyrel L, Claßen-Bockhoff R., Neinhuis C., Spatz H.-C. 2003: The potential of plant biomechanics in functional biology and systematics. In Stuessy TF, Hörandl EB., Mayer V. (eds.): Deep Morphology: Toward a renaissance of morpholpgy in plant systematics: 241-271. Koeltz, Koenigstein.

Stöbbe J, Schramme J, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Trainig experiments with Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera on artificial `Salvia´flowers. Flora 221: 92-99.

Zhang B, Claßen-Bockhoff R. , Zhang Z.-Q., Sun S., Luo Y.-J., Li Q.-J. 2011: Functional implications of lever-like stamens and floral complexity for pollination and female reproduction success in Salvia cyclostegia (Labiaceae). Annals of Botany 107: 621-628


Will M, Schmalz N, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2015. Towards a new classification of Salvia s.l.: (re)establishing the genus Pleudia Raf. Turk J Bot 39: 693-707.

Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2014. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceaea) in Africa. Annals of Botany 114: 61-83.

Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) – molecular data demand taxonomic consequences. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 109: 33-58.

Bee- and bird-pollinated flowers

Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2009: Pollination biology in Lamiaceae – new insights from Salvia L. In Do Nascimento Moura, C.W., Dos Santoas Silva, T.R., Giuilietti-Harley, A. M., Silva, A. M., Ribeiro dos Santos, F. Botânica Brasileira: Futuro e Compromissos. State University of Bahia (UNEB), Salvador.

Ott D, Hühn P, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Salvia apiana – A carpenter bee flower? Flora 221: 82-91.
Wester P., Jaarsveld E. van, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Bird pollination in South African Sages. Veld & Flora 92: 196-197

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2005: Hummingbird pollination in Salvia haenkei Benth. (Lamiaceae) lacking the „typical“ lever mechanism. Plant Syst. Evol. 257: 133-146.

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2006: Bird pollination in South African Salvia species. Flora 201: 396-406

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2007: Floral diversity and pollen transfer in bird-pollinated Salvia species. Annals of Botany 100: 401-421

Wester P., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2011: Pollination syndromes of New World Salvia species with special reference to bird pollination. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 101-155.

Celep F., Atalay, Z., Dikmen, F., Dogan, M., Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2014. Fly pollination in bee-pollinated Salvia species (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia. American Journal of Botany.